The USA has on 30. July 2020 Your mission Mars 2020 sent to the trip and seven months later is the arrival. Seven months in which the room probe traveled over 450 million kilometers. On Thursday, the 18. February, at 21.30 o’clock (CET), the landing should begin. On board is located next to a new Mars-Rover for the first time a mini helicopter.
A few days earlier, probes of the United Arab Emirates and the People’s Republic of China have already reached Marsoorit. The Chinese space farmers CNSA also plans a landing. But this will be done in May. Actually, the European and Russian Exomars mission should also break the Red Planet in the summer 2020. However, the Corona pandemic could not be carried out with loving tests. The next time window for a start opens 2022.
Artistic representation of the entrance capsule
Space mission to another planet are worthwhile when the two planets are the next. With a flight to the moon, this factor is less important because the journey takes less than a week. At Earth and Mars, however, it’s about months and about every 26 months they are the next. Therefore, in summer 2020, three missions are started within a few days.
But why just the Mars? There are two planets in our solar system that the earth is very similar. On the one hand it is the Venus. The NASA scientist Michael Way published a study in 2016, in which it is called that the climate on Venus was still life-friendly until about 715 million years ago. Today there are inhumane temperatures.
It looks different on Mars. The temperatures are there at an average of 68 degrees Celsius below zero. Not very life-friendly for humans. For simple life forms like microbes could be different. In addition, methane ice was discovered in the cloud cover of Mars. Researchers always find evidence that it has to have given a dense atmosphere as well as a warm and humid climate on the Mars. Others contradict. So there are places on the Mars, where life could have given life.
One of these places is the landing site of Mars 2020. The Jezero crater is located in the northern Marshemisphare in the extensive plateau Syrtis Major Planitia. The crater is said to have arisen about four billion years by a meteorite impact. Until 3.8 billion years ago, there were still open water flats. That could be a sign of past life. Maybe Perseverance will find the fossil remains of simple life forms here. Because where once was water, it could also have given life.
The photo of the Jezero crater was shot by the High Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC) of the European Space Agency ESA. The camera is located on board the Mars Express ORBITER
The probe perseverance of the mission may act on some pictures like a toy, actually the rover is roughly as coarse as a car: in the diagonal he measures 2.70 meters, with a long two meters. He achieves a high of 2.20 meters and a weight of about a ton. On the Mars are about 350 kilograms.
The Rover will be during the entry into the marsatmosphere in a landing capsule, which is equipped with a heat shield. The capsule is in free fall. If you have attracted the glued hot entrance, a rescue package should open to reduce the falling speed. After a while, his heat shield is lost from the capsule, so that the Rover can notify with another landing module from the capsule. If one of these manobs should go wrong, this will mean the probable of the soil mission.
The landing module is said to make his fall with Dusen. Did that photos are shot by the Martian surface. As a result, a suitable landing place can be considered out of a lower high. For past missions, one trusted out of original orbital data. The drawback: The landing site can only be calculated exactly between one and five kilometers. Unevenness in the country or rocking office could thus be in the way in the landing. With the new method, the country module can react autonomously.
(Source: NASA / JPL-Caltech)
The residual risk is only inaccuracy of 60 meters. After the landing site is auferkeren, the cable train should open from the landing module. At the end is the Rover, which should have Marsboden shortly thereafter. Nevertheless, there will be no gentle landing, it is called with the NASA.
Perseverance and his mission
After his landing, Perseverance should look for past microbial life. A progress, because Fruhere Rover have only sought after habitable conditions. In addition, Perseverance should collect stallion samples. Especially the core holes in the Mars Underground will be interesting. The Rover should collect this name. NASA intended to push the samples in a future mission in space to bring an orbiter to earth.
Although theoretically, a study by robot vehicles on the MARS also became possible. The analysis machines required for that were far too rough for a trip to Mars. Auf the science world, the new high-resolution photos of the Martian surface for sensation are probably. Because how his transaction will also push perseverance photos. In addition, there is on the bottom of the Rever of Mini Helicopter Ingenuity (English. For ingenuity). 60 to 90 days after landing, Perseverance is to settle him at a suitable place and remove from him.
The first interplanetary motor flight
It will be the first time that an aircraft like Ingenuity is flying on a strange planet. The mini helicopter has a mass of 1.8 kilograms – on Mars he weighs just 680 grams. Its basic mab are 14 x 14 centimeters. However, by his angled staple and the rotors, it is 80 centimeters high.
Artistic representation of the new Mars-Rovers Perseverance and his mini-helicopter Ingenuity on the Martian surface
Whether the Mars helicopter is actually flying is still in the stars. The Marsatmosphere is namely 99 percent Dunner than the atmosphere on earth. For this reason, NASA scientists had to design a new rotor technology consisting of four specially made carbon blasts. Two of these blatters are each attached to one of two rotors. This will give you a span of 1.20 meters.
One of the rotors will move in and the other counterclockwise. The carbon blatters should be at a speed of 2.Turn 400 turns. This is the tenfold speed of a passenger helicopter on earth. With this new technology, the small MARS helicopter should lift off.
(Source: NASA / JPL-Caltech)
For caution, the first attempts are made only from high-flying tests in a small aircraft. Ingenuity will be approximately 20 to 30 seconds in the air – if it works. The test phase should take 30 days. There should be fun fly tests during this time. With the last flight test, even a route of 300 meters should be completed in a flight height of ten meters. The board camera should push photos from the martial surface. If the tests should be successful, the NASA plans to build a coarse helicopter for a future mission. First of all, however, it is called to wait if the NASA succeeds again a landing on the Mars.